PHP: Date and Time functions :-

Date and time too much useful operation in PHP. If you want to display time or date on a website, you can use the date () and time () function.Date and time operations are also used in the MYSQL queries. We can also use the time() and date() function to design a website. The best examples of date() and time() functions are the WordPress blog and WordPress website.WordPress is a content management system that is developed on PHP. If you create a post in the WordPress blog, then there is a date and time display. From MYSQL, posts display by date or time. This is the real example of date and time function using PHP. If you have to need to display the latest content on the website , then you can do through the date and time function using MYSQL queries.

1. Display the data from the MYSQL table using date or time.

2. Set the data at the top using new or old date and time.

3. Find the data using date and time using MySQL data.

Etc.

These are the important points of data and time operations.

Date function in PHP

The date() function is used to display the date and time in a human-readable format. It can be used to display the date and time of the article posted on the website using MYSQL queries. The date() function converts timestamp to a more readable date and time format. The system stores the date and time in timestamp format. This format is no understandable format for the user. Make it human readable format using date() function.

Date function syntax in PHP

 

date(format,[timestamp]);

In above syntax -

Date() is a function that is used to return current time on the server.

"Format" - The format refers to a presentation of time. Which format do you like to use?

for example -"DD/MM/YYYY" - For this format , we specify the format in PHP 'd-m-y' or 'd/m/y' etc .

You can display the year only using PHP date format 'Y' (Uppercase).

'D' - Specify the day like - Sun to Sat.

ETC-

“[timestamp]” The timestamp is optional. If you do not provide a timestamp, PHP gets the use the PHP current date time on the server.

Examples of date and time functions -

In the example below, you can see the example of date and time function with output.

Example

<?php 
$date=date('m-d-y');
echo $date;

?>

Run

In the above example, we use a simple date function. In the date function, we pass some format parameters, which help to get the date in different formate.

Date() function format parameters in PHP

The following format parameters are used to display date and time in various formats.

m- The m format parameter represents the month. Display the month in digit 1 to 12.

Month Example

<?php 
$var=date('m');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
06

d- The d parameter stands for the date of the month. Display the date in the digit.

Example

<?php 
$var=date('d');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
16

y - The y parameter of date() function is used to display the year. Display the year in the digit. like 07, 10,19 .

Example

<?php 
$var=date('y');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
19

D – The d parameter is for the day of the week. It represents the day name like Sun to Sat.

Example

<?php 
$var=date('D');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
Sun

M – The uppercase M parameter represents the month name in text formate like Jan to Dec.

Example

<?php 
$var=date('M');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
Jun

Y – The uppercase Y Represents year in four digits(YYYY) like 2010, 2019, 2050.

Example

<?php 
$var=date('Y');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
2019

h – The lowercase m format parameter of date() function represents the hour in 12 hour format (01 to 12).

Example

<?php 
$var=date('h');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
04

H –The lowercase m format parameter represents the hour in 24-hour format (01 to 24).

Example

<?php 
$var=date('H');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
04

i – The lowercase i parameter represents the minutes like 00 to 59.

Example

<?php 
$var=date('i');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
50

s – The lowercase s paramenter represents seconds like 000 to 59 .


Example

<?php 
$var=date('s');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
38

a – The lowercase a parameter represent am and pm meridian and post meridian in lowercase like am and pm .

Example

<?php 
$var=date('a');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
am

A – The uppercase A format parameter of date() function represents AM and PM . Upercase meridian and post meridian.


F- The F parameter represents the month name of year like January to December.

Example

<?php 
$var=date('A');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
AM

t- The t represents the days in month like 28 to 31 .

Example

<?php 
$var=date('t');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
30

z- It represents the day of year like 0 to 365 ..

Example

<?php 
$var=date('z');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
166

g-The lowercase g represents the hour without leading zeroes.

[1 to 12], .

Example

<?php 
$var=date('g');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
4

G - The uppercase G parameter of date function represents the hour [0 to 23].

Example

<?php 
$var=date('G');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
4

r- The r parameter of date() function represents the full date and time .

Example

<?php 
$var=date('r');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
Sun, 16 Jun 2019 04:50:38 +0000

l- The l parameter of date() function represents the name of the week [Sunday to Saturday]

Example

<?php 
$var=date('l');
echo $var;

?>


Output

 
Sunday

Use of date_default_timezone_set() function parameters and timezone identifiers

In the following example , we use the date_default_timezone_set() function and pass the format parameters . The date_default_timezone_set() function stands for the defualt time and date to get.

Example

<?php 
date_default_timezone_set('Asia/Kolkata');
echo date('H:ia');
?>

Run

Asia/Kolkata- - timezone identifier.


('H:ia')--
H – Specified the hours.
i— Specified the seconds
a -- Specified the period (AM ,PM)

Find the timezone identfiers

You can set your default time zone using timezone identifiers. To find out the timezone identifiers execute the below program. You will get all timezone identifiers list.

Example

<?php 

$timezones= DateTimeZone::listIdentifiers();

foreach($timezones as $key => $list){

echo $list . "
"; } ?>

Output

 
Africa/Abidjan
Africa/Accra
Africa/Addis_Ababa
Africa/Algiers
Africa/Asmara
Africa/Bamako
Africa/Bangui
Africa/Banjul
Africa/Bissau
Africa/Blantyre
Africa/Brazzaville
Africa/Bujumbura
Africa/Cairo
Africa/Casablanca
Africa/Ceuta
Africa/Conakry
Africa/Dakar
Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Africa/Djibouti
Africa/Douala
Africa/El_Aaiun
Africa/Freetown
Africa/Gaborone
Africa/Harare
Africa/Johannesburg
Africa/Juba
Africa/Kampala
Africa/Khartoum
Africa/Kigali
Africa/Kinshasa
Africa/Lagos
Africa/Libreville
Africa/Lome
Africa/Luanda
Africa/Lubumbashi
Africa/Lusaka
Africa/Malabo
Africa/Maputo
Africa/Maseru
Africa/Mbabane
Africa/Mogadishu
Africa/Monrovia
Africa/Nairobi
Africa/Ndjamena
Africa/Niamey
Africa/Nouakchott
Africa/Ouagadougou
Africa/Porto-Novo
Africa/Sao_Tome
Africa/Tripoli
Africa/Tunis
Africa/Windhoek
America/Adak
America/Anchorage
America/Anguilla
America/Antigua
America/Araguaina
America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires
America/Argentina/Catamarca
America/Argentina/Cordoba
America/Argentina/Jujuy
America/Argentina/La_Rioja
America/Argentina/Mendoza
America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos
America/Argentina/Salta
America/Argentina/San_Juan
America/Argentina/San_Luis
America/Argentina/Tucuman
America/Argentina/Ushuaia
America/Aruba
America/Asuncion
America/Atikokan
America/Bahia
America/Bahia_Banderas
America/Barbados
America/Belem
America/Belize
America/Blanc-Sablon
America/Boa_Vista
America/Bogota
America/Boise
America/Cambridge_Bay
America/Campo_Grande
America/Cancun
America/Caracas
America/Cayenne
America/Cayman
America/Chicago
America/Chihuahua
America/Costa_Rica
America/Creston
America/Cuiaba
America/Curacao
America/Danmarkshavn
America/Dawson
America/Dawson_Creek
America/Denver
America/Detroit
America/Dominica
America/Edmonton
America/Eirunepe
America/El_Salvador
America/Fort_Nelson
America/Fortaleza
America/Glace_Bay
America/Godthab
America/Goose_Bay
America/Grand_Turk
America/Grenada
America/Guadeloupe
America/Guatemala
America/Guayaquil
America/Guyana
America/Halifax
America/Havana
America/Hermosillo
America/Indiana/Indianapolis
America/Indiana/Knox
America/Indiana/Marengo
America/Indiana/Petersburg
America/Indiana/Tell_City
America/Indiana/Vevay
America/Indiana/Vincennes
America/Indiana/Winamac
America/Inuvik
America/Iqaluit
America/Jamaica
America/Juneau
America/Kentucky/Louisville
America/Kentucky/Monticello
America/Kralendijk
America/La_Paz
America/Lima
America/Los_Angeles
America/Lower_Princes
America/Maceio
America/Managua
America/Manaus
America/Marigot
America/Martinique
America/Matamoros
America/Mazatlan
America/Menominee
America/Merida
America/Metlakatla
America/Mexico_City
America/Miquelon
America/Moncton
America/Monterrey
America/Montevideo
America/Montserrat
America/Nassau
America/New_York
America/Nipigon
America/Nome
America/Noronha
America/North_Dakota/Beulah
America/North_Dakota/Center
America/North_Dakota/New_Salem
America/Ojinaga
America/Panama
America/Pangnirtung
America/Paramaribo
America/Phoenix
America/Port-au-Prince
America/Port_of_Spain
America/Porto_Velho
America/Puerto_Rico
America/Punta_Arenas
America/Rainy_River
America/Rankin_Inlet
America/Recife
America/Regina
America/Resolute
America/Rio_Branco
America/Santarem
America/Santiago
America/Santo_Domingo
America/Sao_Paulo
America/Scoresbysund
America/Sitka
America/St_Barthelemy
America/St_Johns
America/St_Kitts
America/St_Lucia
America/St_Thomas
America/St_Vincent
America/Swift_Current
America/Tegucigalpa
America/Thule
America/Thunder_Bay
America/Tijuana
America/Toronto
America/Tortola
America/Vancouver
America/Whitehorse
America/Winnipeg
America/Yakutat
America/Yellowknife
Antarctica/Casey
Antarctica/Davis
Antarctica/DumontDUrville
Antarctica/Macquarie
Antarctica/Mawson
Antarctica/McMurdo
Antarctica/Palmer
Antarctica/Rothera
Antarctica/Syowa
Antarctica/Troll
Antarctica/Vostok
Arctic/Longyearbyen
Asia/Aden
Asia/Almaty
Asia/Amman
Asia/Anadyr
Asia/Aqtau
Asia/Aqtobe
Asia/Ashgabat
Asia/Atyrau
Asia/Baghdad
Asia/Bahrain
Asia/Baku
Asia/Bangkok
Asia/Barnaul
Asia/Beirut
Asia/Bishkek
Asia/Brunei
Asia/Chita
Asia/Choibalsan
Asia/Colombo
Asia/Damascus
Asia/Dhaka
Asia/Dili
Asia/Dubai
Asia/Dushanbe
Asia/Famagusta
Asia/Gaza
Asia/Hebron
Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh
Asia/Hong_Kong
Asia/Hovd
Asia/Irkutsk
Asia/Jakarta
Asia/Jayapura
Asia/Jerusalem
Asia/Kabul
Asia/Kamchatka
Asia/Karachi
Asia/Kathmandu
Asia/Khandyga
Asia/Kolkata
Asia/Krasnoyarsk
Asia/Kuala_Lumpur
Asia/Kuching
Asia/Kuwait
Asia/Macau
Asia/Magadan
Asia/Makassar
Asia/Manila
Asia/Muscat
Asia/Nicosia
Asia/Novokuznetsk
Asia/Novosibirsk
Asia/Omsk
Asia/Oral
Asia/Phnom_Penh
Asia/Pontianak
Asia/Pyongyang
Asia/Qatar
Asia/Qyzylorda
Asia/Riyadh
Asia/Sakhalin
Asia/Samarkand
Asia/Seoul
Asia/Shanghai
Asia/Singapore
Asia/Srednekolymsk
Asia/Taipei
Asia/Tashkent
Asia/Tbilisi
Asia/Tehran
Asia/Thimphu
Asia/Tokyo
Asia/Tomsk
Asia/Ulaanbaatar
Asia/Urumqi
Asia/Ust-Nera
Asia/Vientiane
Asia/Vladivostok
Asia/Yakutsk
Asia/Yangon
Asia/Yekaterinburg
Asia/Yerevan
Atlantic/Azores
Atlantic/Bermuda
Atlantic/Canary
Atlantic/Cape_Verde
Atlantic/Faroe
Atlantic/Madeira
Atlantic/Reykjavik
Atlantic/South_Georgia
Atlantic/St_Helena
Atlantic/Stanley
Australia/Adelaide
Australia/Brisbane
Australia/Broken_Hill
Australia/Currie
Australia/Darwin
Australia/Eucla
Australia/Hobart
Australia/Lindeman
Australia/Lord_Howe
Australia/Melbourne
Australia/Perth
Australia/Sydney
Europe/Amsterdam
Europe/Andorra
Europe/Astrakhan
Europe/Athens
Europe/Belgrade
Europe/Berlin
Europe/Bratislava
Europe/Brussels
Europe/Bucharest
Europe/Budapest
Europe/Busingen
Europe/Chisinau
Europe/Copenhagen
Europe/Dublin
Europe/Gibraltar
Europe/Guernsey
Europe/Helsinki
Europe/Isle_of_Man
Europe/Istanbul
Europe/Jersey
Europe/Kaliningrad
Europe/Kiev
Europe/Kirov
Europe/Lisbon
Europe/Ljubljana
Europe/London
Europe/Luxembourg
Europe/Madrid
Europe/Malta
Europe/Mariehamn
Europe/Minsk
Europe/Monaco
Europe/Moscow
Europe/Oslo
Europe/Paris
Europe/Podgorica
Europe/Prague
Europe/Riga
Europe/Rome
Europe/Samara
Europe/San_Marino
Europe/Sarajevo
Europe/Saratov
Europe/Simferopol
Europe/Skopje
Europe/Sofia
Europe/Stockholm
Europe/Tallinn
Europe/Tirane
Europe/Ulyanovsk
Europe/Uzhgorod
Europe/Vaduz
Europe/Vatican
Europe/Vienna
Europe/Vilnius
Europe/Volgograd
Europe/Warsaw
Europe/Zagreb
Europe/Zaporozhye
Europe/Zurich
Indian/Antananarivo
Indian/Chagos
Indian/Christmas
Indian/Cocos
Indian/Comoro
Indian/Kerguelen
Indian/Mahe
Indian/Maldives
Indian/Mauritius
Indian/Mayotte
Indian/Reunion
Pacific/Apia
Pacific/Auckland
Pacific/Bougainville
Pacific/Chatham
Pacific/Chuuk
Pacific/Easter
Pacific/Efate
Pacific/Enderbury
Pacific/Fakaofo
Pacific/Fiji
Pacific/Funafuti
Pacific/Galapagos
Pacific/Gambier
Pacific/Guadalcanal
Pacific/Guam
Pacific/Honolulu
Pacific/Kiritimati
Pacific/Kosrae
Pacific/Kwajalein
Pacific/Majuro
Pacific/Marquesas
Pacific/Midway
Pacific/Nauru
Pacific/Niue
Pacific/Norfolk
Pacific/Noumea
Pacific/Pago_Pago
Pacific/Palau
Pacific/Pitcairn
Pacific/Pohnpei
Pacific/Port_Moresby
Pacific/Rarotonga
Pacific/Saipan
Pacific/Tahiti
Pacific/Tarawa
Pacific/Tongatapu
Pacific/Wake
Pacific/Wallis
UTC

Display the time in 12 hours format-

It is best practice if you want to display the time in 12 hours format.(Real system Time )

Example

<?php 
date_default_timezone_set('Asia/Kolkata');
echo date('g:i a');
?>

Run

g—specified the hours(in 12 hours).


i—Specified the second.
a -- Specified the period (AM ,PM)

Display Day name -

The best think is that how to represent date, time and day on your webpage? If you want to show day name on your web page you should try this example.

Example

<?php 
$day= date('D');
echo 'The current day is:'.$day;
?>

Run

Date and Time together –

You can display the date and time together in a function .

Example

<?php 
date_default_timezone_set('Asia/Kolkata');

echo date('d-m-Y g:i a');
?>

Run

Built-In Functions